Tuesday, February 19, 2008


Table of contents………………………………………………………………………1
1.0 Introduction: 3
1.1 Background to the study 3
2.0 Objectives of the study 4
2.1Overall objective 4
2.2 Specific objectives 4
3.0 Scope of the study: 5
4.0 Methodology: 5
4.1 Research design 5
4.2 Methods of data collection 6
5.1.1 TOURISM ACTIVITIES AND THEIR LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE RURAL AREAS (KASESE AND KABAROLE) 7 Existing tourist attractions in the Region 8 Situational analysis for tourism development in the rural areas 16
6.1 Introduction. 39
6.2 Definition of cultural tourism. 39
6.3 Need for cultural tourism in Kabarole. 39
6.4 Objectives of developing cultural tourism in Kabarole district. 40
6.5 Income generating opportunities for cultural tourism. 40
6.6 Tourism facilities needed for cultural tourism development. 43
7.1 Introduction 44
7.2 Marketing objectives. 44
7.3 Target markets / market segments 45
7.4 Market analysis for cultural tourism. 45
7.5 Marketing channels 47
8.1 Conclusions 47
8.2 Recommendations 48

1.0 Introduction:
1.1 Background to the study

Tourism is one of the largest service industries that are estimated to contribute over US $ 500m annually. It has played an important role in social cultural and economic development of nations the world over and has sustained the livelihoods of many individuals that employed under several sub sectors like travel and transport, accommodation, banking insurance among others.

The tourism industry in Uganda has been growing steadily over the past two decades that has made it one of the leading export sector and foreign exchange earner in the country. This growth has been manifested in the ever-increasing tourism arrival and consequently tourist receipts.
The tourist arrival increased from 78,061 in 1992 rising up to 129,528 in 1994,192,755 in 2000, 304,656 in 2003 and rising as high as 512,379 in 2004

The rising numbers of tourist arrivals have made different sub sectors of the economy to get involved in research, developing and marketing of tourism products and still more of these are needed.

From this there fore, the students of Bachelor of tourism Makerere university carried out the field research trips to find out the tourist attractions, activities and services , potentials in the destinations, to create new products and establishing the means of how these products can be packaged and marketed.

The western Uganda was chosen because it being in the rift valley zone, has highly endowed natural and cultural resources ranging from climate, forests, rivers, hills, mountains national parks and game reserves that act as major pull factors to the Ugandan tourists

The central Uganda was chosen because it is where the incoming tourist land first before they travel to the upcountry attractions. There fore it is in the central region that the tourist will get information on transport accommodation and the tourist attractions

2.0 Objectives of the study
2.1 Overall objective

The major objective of the field study was to acquire skills in developing tourist destinations marketing the tourism products and getting acquainted with tour guiding and interpretation of natural and cultural resources.

2.2 Specific objectives

• To find out the tourist resources that are found both in the both the rural and urban areas.
• To find out the distances between the major attractions and the neighbouring towns
• To find out the tourist potentials and how they can be developed and incorporated in the traditional tourism circuits.
• To find out the tourist activities in the destinations and the facilities and how they can be developed for tourism.
• To find out the relationships between tourism and the environment in both rural and urban areas of Uganda.

3.0 Scope of the study:

The study was carried out the specific places in western Uganda in the districts of Kabarole and Kasese for rural zones and the central region in the districts of Kampala, Mpigi and Jinja.
The research study also involved identifying the tourist activities and attractions of the destinations visited, establishing the tourist potentials, carrying out the situational analysis that is Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis it also involved the tourism product development and repackaging and carrying out the tourism market plan for the selected destination, product activity or potential.
4.0 Methodology:
The methodology involved the research design the methods used in the data collection
4.1 Research design

The research design involves the type of data that was collected. The research involved the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative data involves the description and statement of the facts the way they are in the areas visited. On the other hand, quantitative method involves the use of figures and tables in the description of some attractions and activities in the areas visited.
For the matter of convenience and effectiveness both qualitative and quantitative methods were used during data collection.

4.2 Methods of data collection
A number of methods were employed during the course of data collection and during the data coding analysis and interpretation.

4.2.1 Observation

The observation method involved the use of human senses especially the sight. The researcher used the method by looking at different attractions and activities like the lakes, birds and animals in different destinations visited.

4.2.2 Oral interview

The oral interview was used where by the researcher was trying to ask different tour guides and service owners in the areas that were visited.

4.2.3 Open group discussion

The discussions were carried out by the researchers in different groups in trying to understand more about the activities and identifying the potential of the places visited and also with people at the destinations.

4.2.4 Data coding
After the data was collected from the field, the researcher started organising the data by removing the irrelevant information that was also collected from the field

4.2.5 Data analysis
The data was organised and the researcher started looking for the relationships between different phenomena.

4.2.6 Photography
The researcher took some photographs from the field including the ones for attractions in the areas that were visited.



Kabarole district is found I western Uganda and is bordered with Kasese in the South,Kamwenge in the south east, Kyenjojo in the east and Bundibugyo in the west, Kibale in the north east. It is approximately 200km from Kampala city. It as a bimodal rain fall distribution in March – may and September- December that ranges from 1000-1800 per annum.
Kasese district is also found in the western Uganda bordered with Bushenyi in the south Kamwenge in the east, Kabarole in the north and Democratic republic of Congo in the west. It is about 427km from Kampala city and has the altitude of 1700-5019m above the sea level.

These areas having been endowed with the favourable climate, altitude and fertile volcanic soils have a large number of attractions that range from the landscape, flora fauna and the cultures of the people of that place. Existing tourist attractions in the Region Natural resources
There are a number of primate species that are found in Kabarole region. Kibale forest has the highest number of primates in east Africa totalling 13 species out of the 20 in Ugandan forests that has the highest density in the world. The primates include the chimpanzees, colubus monkey, red-tailed monkey paidmed monkey, blue monkey, the rare l’Hoesti monkey, bush babies and pottos and the grey-checked mangabay.

Primate tracking has been developed in Kibale forest especially chimpanzees that involve 8 people the go for tracking every day. This is dove on the habituation families to ensure the ecosystem in Kibale forest.

There are a number of birds in Kibale forest, Bigodi wetland and in Queen Elizabeth national park.
Kibale forest has over 335 species out of 1000 species that are in Uganda that include yellow-spotted nicator, yellow-numped tinker bird, great blue turaco, crowned eagle, black bee-eater and green breasted pita.
Bigodi wetland also knick named “The Home of the Great blue Turaco has a number of birds of about 200 species that have been listed like the black- billed Turaco and the white- spotted crake.
Queen Elizabeth national park also has about 628 species and of which many can be found on the Kazinga channel and Maramagambo forest. These include pied kingfisher, yellow-billed stork, spar-winged plover, African jacana, black crake, great cormorant, African pied wag tail, grey parrots black and white casqued horn bill an the Egyptian goose.
Around Amabere ga Nyinamwiru there are birds like Verreaux’s eagle, Rwenzoris Turaco, Aquile Verreauxil among others.
These have made the tourism activities in the areas possible like bird watching both on water and the forests.

Water birds along the Kazinga channel

(Source: from the field)

There is a high diversity of butterfly species in the region where Kibale tropical rainforest has over 250 species including the Red grader. Maramagambo forest also has species like Green patch swallow tail and the blue policeman.

The place has the rich diversity of plant life like Kibale forest, Maramagambo forests among others. Kibale forest has about 333 species of trees among which is Wambughia ugandasis, elephant bear-tree, Naked Adam and Eve and other medicinal plants.
There is a lot of thicket that catch ones eyes as he along Queen Elizabeth national park. Most of these plants act as medicinal plants. Generally, Kibale forest national peak has 77% that is covered by trees and the remaining 23% being bush, grassland and swamp.

Activities like forest walks and nature walks, primate tracking, bird watching, butterfly watching and ecotourism activities have been carried out in the areas.
Other mammals
Kibaale forest has other fauna apart from primates having 70 species of mammals out of 310 in Uganda excluding the bats. These include forest elephants that are smaller than other elephants, Buffaloes, Giant forest hog, antelopes, bush pigs and Duikers.
Queen Elizabeth national park has a large number of animal species of about 95 recorded species the most common ones being the climbing lions, leopards, African elephants, hyenas, Dwarf galago, striped polecat, White-tailed mangoose, and African golden cat.
There has been different activities developed due to the existence of these animals like game drives, forest walks and nature walks and launch cruises for the case of the aquatic animals.

Elephants in Queen Elizabeth National Park

Source: from the field

Water bodies
In the queen Elizabeth national; park, there are the common Lake Edward and George that are joined by the Kazinga channel and Kamiranjojo in Maramagambo that is 320m deep. One can also see Lake Nyamunuka on the way to Mweya safari lodge, crater lakes like Nyamusingiri and Kyashandura.
In Kabarole, there are widely spread crater and lava dammed lakes with the largest number of 62 in Uganda. Some of these lakes can be seen in Nyakasura, Rweihamba and Kansenda areas and around Ndali lodge. In Nyakasura near fort portal town on Kyeganywa hill, one can have a close look at Ekigere (explosion crater), Akaigodi (caldera), Wabikere (explosion crater) and Saaka which is a lava dammed lake.
There is also river Dura and Mpanga in Kibale forest that flows into Lake George.

Therefore activities like sport fishing, boat rides or launch cruises, swimming, bird watching, scenic viewing among others have been developed due to the presence of these water bodies.

Kabarole has many rolling hills that give a good view to the crater lakes for example the Kyeganywa hill in Nyakasura and other hills like where Ndali lodge is situated. Near fort portal town is the Kabarole hill where the Omukama’s palace of Tooro kingdom is built that can give the panoramic view of fort portal town.
Most of these hills are the ones that were formed as a result of vulcanicity. In Kasese, one can have a view at the foot hills of Mt. Rwenzori that provide the scenic beauty to the tourists.
The undulating landscape of the area has made it possible for the activities like hill hiking or hill climbing, scenic viewing, and the village walks that are organised to some of these sites.

Water falls
The Nyakasura falls that are about 3km from fort portal town also provide a good view and the eye catching experience. The falls are about 10m high that form a small lake down. The falls are then joined to river Kamutebi that has its source in the Rwenzori Mountains after which the water flows into river Mpanga and then pour their water into Lake George.
The falls provide good scenery to the area that attracts most of the tourists in the areas like Nyakasura.

Stalactites and stalagmites (Amabere)
These are the most important features in Kabarole. The stalactites (hanging breasts)and the stalagmites (bottom breasts) are formed the water on the hanging features passes through the limestone rock and dissolves the calcium carbonate content that are deposited on the bottom of the caves and with time, they form the boob-like features that are referred to as Breasts (locally meaning Amabere).
The dropping water mixed with calcium carbonate that is greyish in colour is referred to as breast milk. When these features grow over a long period of time, they join to form the supporting features that are known as the pillars.
Many tourists have been attracted to the place to see the geographical formations in the cave that adds on the scenery of the place. It also provided the cultural experience as people listen to the stories behind them.
Stalactites and stalagmites (Amabere)

Source: from the field Cultural attraction
The Tooro kingdom palace
The palace that is also called Karuzika found on Kabarole hill in fort portal town is the official home of the Omukama of Tooro kingdom.
In 1836 Olimi Kaboyo the son of Kyebambe II Nyamutukura of Bunyoro rebelled against his father and set up Tooro kingdom. Karuziika was built in 1912 by Omukama Kyebambe but was destroyed in 1966.

However in 1995, there was the restoration, rehabilitation and renovation of the palace by the Libya’s president Gadaffi. The kingdom is also the one that has got the youngest leader in the whole world.
Apart from the palace, the place has attractions including cultural huts, traditional regalia and the royal drums that are sounded during the coronation of the Omukama.
The activities like the cultural walk around the palace have been developed as the tourist view different other attractions on the site apart from the palace.
The Karambi tombs
The Karambi tombs are located in Karambi sub-county 3miles from fort portal town. It is the burial ground of the Tooro kings and the members of the royal family. There are the burial grounds of the 3 former kings and these are Omukama Kyebambe Kasagama (1891-1928, Kamurasi Rukidi Mpuga (1928-1966), and Patrick David Mathew Olimi Kaboyo (1966-1995) the father of the current Omukama of Tooro kingdom.

Inside the houses of the resting places of the kings are the regalia of all the kings that include the drums, flutes, beads, smoking pipes, milk pots spears, animal skins, crowns and the knives. Every king is taken with his belongings because they have a belief that the kings do not die but move to another world where they will be used.
The relatives of the king or members of the royal family’s tombs are not sheltered and they include the ones for queens, princes and the princesses of the kingdom.

The sightseeing and the nature walks are carried out on the site that is guided by the cultural guides of the Batooro.

The arts and craft
The arts and crafts that reflect the culture and authenticity of the Batooro and Tooro kingdom are found in various craft shops in fort portal town that are mainly sold to the tourists. These craft are made especially by women such as Ruhingo women group and the crafts normally made include baskets, clothes mats, spears and the balls that are made of banana fibres illustrating the sports of the kingdom.
The tourists are given the chance of looking at the crafts that are made of local materials and also participate in the buying of them as the souvenirs.

The dressing:
The Batooro have their unique ways of dressing that are used on different occasions for example the back cloth that shows how the early Batooro used to dress before the use of dresses. For the traditional occasions, the women put on Eshuka and the Ekitambi while the men put on Kanzu that symbolise the authenticity of the Batooro.

Traditional Events
The Batooro also have the traditional events that take place like Empango day which is the coronation day that is celebrated on 12th September. The traditional dances and music are organised and preformed and the traditional drinks are prepared. All these are done and aimed at respecting and maintaining Tooro culture. Human based attractions
Tea plantations
Tea being the major cash crop in the area, it has attracted a number of tourists in there including the researchers. Some people go to the tea plantations or estates to observe how tea is picked from the large estates, and how it is processed for human consumption.
The nature and guided walks are carried out by the tourists around the plantations and farms.

Mweya safari Lodge:
It is one of the biggest hotels in Queen Elizabeth national park and people go there to see how it was built using the local materials like wood and its location on the peninsular of Kazinga channel.
It provides the accommodation facilities to the tourists and good scenery to the rest of the national park’s vegetation and the animals that normally visit the area.
There is also Jacana lodge in Maramagambo forest that was built on the shores of Lake Nyamusingiri. It provided a good view of Lake Nyamusingiri and the surrounding forests. The nature walks, bird watching, primate tracking and the village walks are also arranged on the lodge with the trained guides.

Ndali lodge also built on the hill the gives the view to some of the crater lakes in the region. It also provides the good view to the crater lakes and the differing vegetation that surround the lodge.

Virika hospital that is the biggest in Kabarole which is built of wood that gives it a unique architecture from other structures around. This provides the tourists with the good view of the whole place and the architecture of the hospital.

Virika church that is a few kilometres from fort portal town also has a unique shape and architectural design that attract the tourists.

Hima cement factory that is found a few minutes drive from Kasese town on Kasese- fort portal road is also visited by the tourists as they have their way to queen Elizabeth
National park

The Kilembe mines where copper ore used to be mined also attract the tourists into the area. These days there are other activities that take place at the site including the metal work shop where different metals are welded and made.
The tourists carry out activities like nature guided walks to the areas where copper ore was mined and even inside the tunnels. The tourists are also taken to the workshop where many activities like welding take place.
Hydro electricity power generation on river Mubuku in Kasese also attract the tourists to see how the power is generated and the processes involved which provides power to the mines and the neighbouring areas. Situational analysis for tourism development in the rural areas

High species diversity which involve the flora and fauna both in the protected areas like Queen Elizabeth national park and Kibale Forest National park and outside these protected areas
Good scenery because of the varying undulating landscape with the hills, lakes, rivers, lakes and the vegetation.
Small numbers of tourists or the absence of mass tourism that make the areas to maintain their natural beauty that has favoured ecotourism and cultural tourism in the area.
Culture because Kabarole and Kasese areas have the cultures that have not been eroded away by the modernity and therefore maintaining the authenticity like the Tooro kingdom.
Hospitality in a way that people in those areas are welcoming to the visitor that can be exhibited in the services they provide to the tourists and welcoming the idea of tourism development.

Lack of enough tourist experience as some areas have not been receiving the big number of tourists and therefore the services they provide are not to the international standards like in the accommodation sector.

Low conservation education in a way that in some area people have not been educated about the need for the conservation of the environment. Therefore they have used the tourist resources for their own benefits.

Carrying capacity determination; there has been no measure put up to determine the level of carrying capacity as people may be few but cause harm to the environment and a large which may have no effect to the environment.

Verminism where the animals escape from the protected areas and attack the neighbouring communities that creates resentment of tourism by the host communities.

Inadequate infrastructure in terms of roads that link the protected areas and the tourist attractions which are poor and impassable especially marrum roads during the rainy seasons

Steady growing market where tourism is moving from the mass tourism to the more specialised forms of tourism like ecotourism and cultural tourism that Uganda can utilise.

Existence of potential tourism product as most of the resources is not yet exploited for tourism development like because of inadequate technology.

Existence of community based projects that are capable of protecting and conserving the environment for the future generations like the Bigodi projects.

Encroachment due to the fact that some people do not realise the need for the conservation of the resources for tourism, others encroach the areas because it is the source of their livelihoods like in terms of medicines and the wild meat and others because of the cultural influence.

Uganda's poor image that was caused by the political turmoil of the Amin’s regime and the instability that has been affecting different parts of the country like the Northern part.

Poor waste management in the destination areas like within the hotels where the waste is channelled into the water and management of the polythene bags that are dangerous to the environment.
Poor investment climate where the investors are charged high taxes and even no incentives given to encourage the new ones and the ones that are established are of small scale

Summary of the SWOT Analysis for tourism development in rural areas
Strength Weaknesses
• High species diversity
• Small numbers of tourists
• Good scenery
• Culture
• Hospitality • Lack of enough tourist experience
• Low conservation education
• Carrying capacity determination
• Verminism
• Inadequate infrastructure
Opportunities Threats
• Steady growing market
• Existence of potential tourism product
• Existence of community based projects • Encroachment
• Uganda's poor image
• Poor waste management
• Poor investment climate

The discussion will involve the attractions and activities that are found in the capital area zone that is the areas of Kampala, Jinja and Mpigi districts. These attractions include the following;


Kasubi tombs
The Kasubi tombs are situated 5 km from the Kampala city on Hoima road. The cultural site involves the tombs of the former Kabakas' tombs of Kabaka Mutesa I, Ssekabaka Daudi Chwa, Ssekabaka Daniel Mwanga Basamula and Sir Edward Mutesa II.
The site also has various attractions that include the following;
• Muzibu Azaala mpanga which is the big grass thatched house measuring 14m in diameter where the Kabakas were put to rest. Muzibu azaala mpanga has 58 pillars in it symbolising the clans of Buganda.

Muzibu azaala Mpanga Spears and Pictures of Ssekabakas

Source: From the field
• Other huts of the wives of the Kabaka (Abazaana) that are also round but iron roofed also can attract the tourists.
• Agricultural farms that involve the banana plantations and other cash and food crops of the Baganda.
• Arts and crafts that are displayed and sold to the tourists as souvenirs made of local materials like baskets, mats and bags in different sizes and shapes.

The site is found on Nagalabi hill a few kilometres off Kampala- Maksaka road. The place is important for Buganda kingdom because it is the coronation site for the kings of Buganda. There are various attractions on the place that include the following;
• Nakibuka (will I really jump it?) which is an anthill where Kintu stood and announced after Bemba had been killed. The same ant is important today because it is where the Kabaka sits during coronation. During the coronation the anthill is covered with the backcloth, lion and leopard skins.
• Bwanika house. After the coronation of the new king at Nakibuka, he is shoulder lifted and taken to this house by the Buffalo clan to receive the powers and blessing of the forefathers.
• Mboneledde (I have learnt) which is the tree that was acting as the kabaka’s court. It named because after forgiving the wrong doers , they would say that they are forgiven
• Buganda house which is the iron roofed hut where Bemba and Kintu were born. After the coronation of the new king first sleeps in this house for a few days.

The Buganda House

Source: from the field

The site is 16 km west of Kampala. Kabaka Kalema (1888-90) was a Muslim who reigned at a time of religious strife. He had succeeded his brother, Kiwewa (1888), who had himself, succeeded his younger brother, the deposed Kabaka MwangaThe ditch measuring 70m wide has the surrounding ditch that was dug up to 30 feet under the powers of Kabaka Kalama which acted as the prison for the princes and princesses. They were imprisoned and were later burnt because they disobeyed his orders. The Baganda still go to the ditch for spiritual healing and blessing.

The zone being along the equator has dense vegetation mainly that support the animal life. The major natural attractions include the following;

The source of the Nile found three kilometers off Nalufenya Road in Jinja was first discovered by John Hannington Speke in 1862 when he named it Rippon falls after the president of the Royal Geographical Society in London. Standing on one side the tourist may be able to view the Napoleon Gulf and on the western bank is an Obelisk making the spot where Speke stood 4 hours when he saw the source of the Nile.
The place offers the good scenic beauty of the place and the flow of the Nile, bird watching of the water birds and also the cultural performances of the orphans.

There is one km of raging white water is10km north of the Kyabazinga Roundabout. These are the spectacular falls where the water moves at the high speed passing through the rocks. The falls provide a good scenic beauty of the place and offer the activities like diving, white water rafting and bunggy jumping near the falls around Jinja Nile Resort.
There is also a mythology about the falls for its spirits with in and around the place where one can get interested in listening to those stories.

Bujjagali falls

Source: From the field

The Uganda Croc farm Ltd in Buwama, Mpigi district has a large number of crocodiles amounting to 3000 with the oldest which is 64 years which was captured from Bugiri district. The farm rears the crocodiles mainly for commercial purposes like getting meat and skins though other activities like tourism and research are also carried out. The proximity of the farm provides the view of Lake Victoria.

The tropical rain forest is found in Mpigi district.37km from the city centre of Kampala, 3km from Mpigi town and 1km from Kampala- Masaka high way. The forest has a large number of attractions including the tree species like Celtis species, ficus species and mahogany. It has primates especially Red- tailed monkeys, Black and white colubus and nocturnal like bush babies. There is a ray of birdlife including the Ross’ Turaco, Grey parrot, Hornbills and Cuckoos. It also has butterflies and moths ..
These support activities like forest walks and forest exploration , bird watching and identification, primate tracking and butterfly identification.


The shrine is ssituated 12km to the northeast of Kampala, off the Jinja Road. The impressive shrine commemorates 22 Ugandan Christians burnt alive in 1886 on the orders of the Kabaka Mwanga II of Uganda. The place has the major attractions that include the following;

The shrine
The architecture of the shrine was done by Dr. Dan hinder. The shrine stands on 22 pillars depicting 22 Uganda martyrs that were killed from there. The shape of the shrine resembles the traditional huts of the Baganda and is decorated with the sculptures and paintings of the martyrs like the one of St. Charles Lwanga baptising Kizito.

St. Lwanga baptizing Kizito The Uganda martyr Namugongo shrine

Source: from the field

Uganda martyrs pond
This is a small man-made lake where the executioners were washinkg the hands from after killing meaning that it was not the ones to blame but rather orders from the king. The water is believed to have the spiritual and healing powers and many people go there to fetch the water. It is also where the commemoration takes place every 3rd June every year.

This involves the part of the tooth of St. Charles Lwanga who was the first martyr to be burnt. This attraction is found at the alter which was consecrated by the 1st pope Pope Paul VI on 2nd August 1969 to come to Uganda.

Surrounding green environment
The area has green environment where the pilgrims go for camping during the events and are used fro camping.

Every 3rd June every year people from all over the world go to the shrine to commemorate and remember the death of the martyrs and innocent souls.

The Bahai house (Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in the Bahai writings meaning the house of worship) is found in Kikaaya hill 6km from Kampala on Gayaza road represent the Bahai houses in African continent. The temple has a number of attractions that include the following;

Architectural design
The structure and design of all the 8 temples in the world is the same. They are built having 9 doors on 9 sides representing the first and major 9 religions in the world.

Bahai Temple

Source: From the field

The green environment
Surrounding the temple are the trees of which some were planted and others natural. Some area was reserved as a strict nature reserve. There are flowers made in a good design like the ones in form of a star which is the symbol of the Bahai faith. The area restricts the picking of flowers and plants, drinking of alcoholic beverages and the use of intoxicating drugs because of being the religious place.

This enormous building is right in the city centre on Sikh Street. The Mandir is the Hindu name for the place of worship or prayer. The temple provides the tourists with experience because of its attractions
The unique architecture
The Mandir is built in the unique shape in the Hindu form. The construction involves the use of only stones and bricks but with out the steel bars. It also has the steps moving there meaning that as one moves from step to step, then he or she leaves behind the sin and reaches near God when holy.
The Hindu Temple (Mandir)

Source: From the field

The paintings and sculptures
The Hindus believe that God is with in the human beings that is the high priest. There are pictures of all the Mandirs in the world, the founder of the Hindus, the “god” and his followers.

Symbols and signs
The Hindus have their own unique symbol that is put on their foreheads as the sign of holiness as the Christians use the cross.

The Hindus have different events that are celebrated including the 12 festivals that are celebrated every month, the Hindu celebrations that take place in November every year celebrated by all the Hindus in the world and the birth days for the high priests.

d) The man-made attractions in the urban areas include the Lugard fort that is found in Old Kampala near the city centre, the different hotels like Jinja Nile resort in Jinja near the source of the Nile and Bujjagali Falls offering different types of accommodation to the tourists.

Cottages at Jinja Nile Resort


Attractive urban environment that is has many activities including trade, administrative functions and many entertainment centres that facilitate the tourist activities in the city and the surrounding areas.
Location where by the area is located near the main international airport that makes the distance to the attraction s near and even the services are mostly concentrated in this region
Popular events which are carried out around the city like the independence days that are celebrated at Kololo airstrip and Uganda martyrs celebrated at Namugongo every year.

Friendly and hospitable people who are involved in the provision of different services in the hospitality industry like the provision of customer care.

Knowledgeable staffs like the tour guides and the hotel managers who provide accurate information to the tourists in the areas of attractions.

One-day visit destinations where the destinations in the capital area zone can be visited for only one day and therefore there are no stays at the destinations and hence little income is generated from them.
Inadequate investment in marketing due to the fact that Uganda has created little awareness about the existing tourist resources which can be developed for tourism.

Inadequate planning where by some facilities and activities are poorly planned in some areas like not matching with the surrounding environment.

Inadequate entertainment as there are few facilities that offer the entertainment services with in the city.

Investment in facility provision is still at a low level and the industry is dominated by the small scale and medium scale enterprises that provide the cheap services.

Cooperation between stakeholders as all the stakeholders like the government, private sector, tour and travel companies and the donors work together towards the development of the tourism industry.

Information provision is very high because of the technology era through the internet, tour operators, word of mouth that makes it possible to get enough information about the attractions every where in the world.

Poor image of Uganda that was brought about by the political instability in the country and the insecurity in the 1970s during the Amin’s regime.

Limited accessibility to Uganda as there are no direct routes to Uganda that limits its accessibility to the international tourists.

Inadequate marketing because there has been weak marketing strategies and techniques that have been applied in the marketing of the destinations.



The areas have a number of attractions and tourism resources that are not developed. These can be developed in different activities that include the following

Farm tourism.
Kabarole and Kasese have a lot of crops that like tea, bananas and the maize and livestock that is also reared in the region. That traditional and modern methods of farming are used that can attract the tourists into the areas.

Water-based activities:
The areas being endowed with a large number of water resources like lakes and rivers and the water alls. Different activities can be developed including boat racing, sport fishing, swimming, diving and canoeing.

Nature study:
Kabarole and Kasese have many natural resources like Kibale forest and Maramagambo forest. It can be developed to facilitate those who are interested in nature and learning about the ecology of both flora and fauna in the area

Areas like Nyakasura have the good grounds the camp sites. For the recreational and existential tourists and spend an over night in the area.

Cultural experience:
The areas have a wide range of cultures like the Banyankole, Batooro, Banyooro, Bakiga, and Bamba among others. These different cultures have different music, dances drama, folklore, story telling, artefacts and festivals. All these can be organised and packaged for the holiday makers.

There are different features especially in Kabarole that have their myth and stories behind them. The 4 lakes in Nyakasura are believed to be the foot steps of the goddess Nyinamwiru and they are;
o Ekigere (foot) is the first step (350m deep). People believe that the voices of the people and animals are heard from there and also go for the healing and blessings.
o Wabikekre frogs) is the second footstep and was named so because it has many frogs.
o Saaka is the third foot step which is helpful in fishing and providing water for domestic use.
o Kaitabalongo is the 4th foot step that is between Kyeganywa hills. It is where the wrong doers would be thrown.
o Stalactites and stalagmites in Nyakasura caves are believed to have been the breasts of Nyinamwiru that were cut off after she had given birth to Ndahura.

For the leisure and cultural tourists, heritage can be developed that can archaeology, architectural design, history and peoples’ ways of lives. These can be enhanced by the presence of the Tooro kingdom palace, Karambi royal tombs and listening to the stories about the history of Tooro kingdom. Situational analysis for potential tourism development in the Rift valley zone

Unique heritage:
The unique cultures of the people in the region especially the Batooro and the information about the Tooro kingdom and its first kings.

The area having a large number of hills, lakes and rivers can help develop different activities like scenic viewing and hill hiking.

Natural environment
The place has some unique species of flora and fauna that may not be found anywhere in the world.

Inadequate planning:
The planning for the tourist activities especially at the district and local level is still inadequate that makes most of the resources and activities to be under exploited.

Local and small-scale enterprises:
Uganda’s tourism industry in general is dominated by the Small-scale and Medium Enterprises (SME) that limit the rate of expansion of the tourism industry.

Low participatory management:
The local communities have not developed the high need of involvement in the natural and cultural resource development but instead some start encroaching on the resources for their own benefits.

Inadequate infrastructure:
Still few facilities exist like accommodation at Nyakasura that has only one Banda that accommodates only 6 people. This limits the number of tourists that would wish to have an over night at the site.

Open access to the international markets:
Tourism being the fast growing industry in the world, the tourists came from all the corners of the world to the peal of Africa. Having that opportunity, western Uganda can sell to all the tourists.

The absence of mass tourism:
There are still numbers of tourists in the major destinations in the western this makes the environment to remain in the natural that encourages ecotourism.

Increased interests of the local people:
As a result of conservation education, the local communities have come to appreciate nature and advocate for its conservation. This has been done through the formation of community based projects like the ones in Bigodi area.

Uganda has advertised both national through the local television sows and programs and international through CNN as “Uganda gifted by nature” and through the websites like www.visituganda.org. This has increased the Uganda’s sales and tourist arrivals in the past few years.

Low levels of income for the local people.
Many people in Uganda lie below the poverty line meaning that they can afford establishing the businesses for the tourists. This makes them to look at tourism as a threat instead of a blessing.

Inadequate funding:
Different tourism establishment and attractions lack enough funds to run them especially the government that gives little funding to the tourism sector. This leaves most of the resources to remain unexploited


Urban night life
Kampala being the safest cities in east Africa has a lot of entertainment during the night including the cinema halls, disco theques and theatres. This can provide an opportunity to the recreational tourists who may want to gain experience.

Kampala has a number of markets that sell different products like St. Balikuddembe, Nakasero and Kiseka markets. These markets can sell foodstuffs to the tourists and souvenirs like drums, mats, smoking pipes, water pipes, shields, calabashes and back cloth. The tourists can also get involved in the purchase of these items can also be found along Kampala- Masaka road

Religious tourism
The Uganda martyrs Namugongo is well known religious site where the martyrs were executed. Story telling can be promoted on how they were killed and how. There are other sites where the martyrs were killed including Mengo, St. Balikuddembe, Mityana and Munyonyo. Other religious sites that can be integrated in the religious circuit are Namirembe cathedral, for Anglicans, Old Kampala mosque that hosts about 1500 people, the Hindu and Bahai temples.

Monuments and heritage tourism
These may include looking and visiting the memorial and historical sites like the constitutional square, Queen’s tower and clock, the Uganda museum and the British Fort established by Captain Lugard in 1890. The existing building was built between 1908 and 1910, and was the seat of British government for many years.

Cultural tourism
Nagalabi coronation site and other related cultural sites like Sezibwa, Bagalayazze, Katereka, Kanyange and Wamala can be integrated in the tourism products offered to the tourists. The Kasubi tombs which was nominated under the World Heritage List has the opportunity of attracting the tourists from all corners of the world. Other important attractions can involve Buganda parliament, Kabaka’s palace at Mengo and Kabaka’s lake. If all these are well packaged they can attract more tourists within this zone. Situational analysis for potential tourism development in urban areas

Outstanding beautiful built sites that have the unique architecture like the ones built using the local materials reflecting the authenticity of the cultures.

Location as it can be easily accessed by the tourists from different countries like Kenya, Tanzania and other countries as the city is served with many transport routes which enable tourist movement simple.
High quality conserved heritage and the history of different cultures that are exhibited in the kingdoms that exist and their cultural resources like the Kasubi tombs and the Kabaka’s palace.
Well preserved reminders of the lifestyle and history like the ways people cultural wear including materials like the back cloth and the traditional huts.

Friendly local people who cooperate in the provision of services to tourists that help in the planning process.

Inadequate research that has been carried out by both the public and the private sectors on the customer needs and wants.

Seasonality of the tourism industry where by there are low tourist arrival during the off-peak season and high arrivals during the peak seasons which brings problems during the planning process.

Private ownership of some sites that makes it very expensive because the owners will try to maximize the profits from these sites.

Inadequate service delivery by some service owners especially in the hospitality industry where the major focus is on the customer satisfaction.

Investment in accommodation because different people have been encouraged to invest in the accommodation sector that can increase of the visitor stays on these destinations.
Re-branding of Uganda where by Uganda has been marketed using a new name of “Uganda gifted by nature” that can increase on the awareness and motivating tourists to come and discover what Uganda has to offer to the tourists.
Domestic tourism has increased as the people have come to appreciate and embrace the tourism industry as may help in the economic development of the country and the conservation of nature and culture.
Better facilities and services which are provided to the tourists of which some are of the international standards catering for the psycho-centrics and the midcentrics.

Poor waste management and disposal especially in the slums and the hospitality establishments like hotels and restaurants.

Insufficient financial resources that are needed to carry out market research and analysis which may an important tool in the planning process.

Urbanization that is growing at a high rate with its associated problems like crimes and prostitution may cause insecurity to the tourists. It has facilitated the cultural erosion as people run way from their responsibilities hence neglect of culture.

Government policy and the legislation on the tourism industry which may not be favorable and inadequate funding of development.

Lack of proper planning at district levels which makes planning at the national level unreliable as it caters for a larger area.


In the rural areas, tourism development is mainly focused on the natural and cultural resources like game viewing, bird watching, hill climbing and water-based tourism. Therefore the activities are mainly in the wild game and culture because of the existence of the National parks, game reserves forests and landscape. Therefore there is a need to develop knew tourism products like farm tourism, cultural visits, home stays, promoting village walks, participating in the traditional arts and crafts, performing dances and drama.
In the urban areas, there are mainly the artificial attractions and this has been due to the improvement in technology and infrastructure development. There is therefore a need to develop new tourism products including shopping trails, religious trails, historical and heritage trails, events tourism, sports tourism, health tourism and educational tourism. All these developed would increase on the tourist flows in the country

The tourism supporting facilities in rural areas are mainly basic for example accommodation is mostly provided in cottages, campsites, lodges, motels, small scale hotels and restaurants. In the urban areas, the facilities are well developed especially in the capital area zone like hotels at the international standards with electricity, power supply, water and high quality service delivery.

Accessibility of the attractions and activities in the rural areas is poor like the case of poor marrum roads apart from some few areas that have airfields and can be accessed with air transport. The accessibility in the capital area zone is easy as it has the international airport, airfields, railways and good and coordinated roads.


6.1 Introduction.
Uganda has got an opportunity of developing cultural tourism and Kabarole in particular. Tourism in Uganda has been based on wildlife especially the flora and fauna as observed in the tourism arrivals of Uganda.
This has made Uganda to low tourist arrivals however there are resources that need to be exploited for tourism development including cultural resources.

Given the provision by the Tourism policy for Uganda (2003), the different stakeholders need to e use the opportunity to exploit these resources by finding the new tourism product, package them and integrated them in the growing tourism markets.

6.2 Definition of cultural tourism.
Cultural is a complex whole that includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, laws, customs and any capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society.
Therefore Cultural tourism involves the movement of people to cultural attractions away from their normal places of residence with the intentions of gathering new information and experience to satisfy their cultural needs.

6.3 Need for cultural tourism in Kabarole.
Kabarole has rich cultural resources including the king’s palace, arts, crafts, the traditional technologies in agriculture and other economic activities, the traditional architecture, story telling, cultural features like lakes and Amabere.
Therefore, developing cultural tourism in Kabarole will create employment to the people, increased interaction with people from other countries that will increase the market share, increase in the cultural pride and cultural strengthening.

6.4 Objectives of developing cultural tourism in Kabarole district.
• To empower the local community economically through the involvement in the activities.
• To put the available and unexploited resources into proper use
• To increase the visitor stays in the areas that will act as the driving force to the multiplier effect.
• To create awareness of the existence of many varying cultures and to appreciate them.
• To increase on the diversity of the Uganda’s tourist market.

6.5 Income generating opportunities for cultural tourism.
These opportunities can produce memories, adventure, experience and friendship between the local people and the tourists and all the major stakeholders in the tourism industry. The income generating opportunities will include the following;

Art and crafts (souvenirs)
The people of Kabarole especially the Batooro have a variety of traditional crafts and artifacts including the defensive weapons like spears and the shields, balls made of banana fibers, milk pots, mats and the modern forms of mosaic and embroidery but on the African pieces of materials. These can be exhibited to the tourists and also sold to them as souvenirs. As tourists participate in these exhibitions and buying these arts and crafts, they will learn how to appreciate the Tooro culture and increase the incomes of the people selling them.

Traditional architecture
This involves the way people used to build their houses before colonialism like showing how Omukama's palace was built and also how other people were building their houses. These huts or houses can be rented to the tourists such that they can feel the Tooro culture and its authenticity as the local people who rent them out get some money from the tourists.

Cloth making and clothes
This involves the way how the early king and the Batooro were putting on. These would include the casual clothing of the Batooro, the ones for different occasions like the Kanzu for men and Shuuka for the women and the dresses for the dances and music. The tourists can buy clothes for their use or they can organize the dressing shows to the tourists at a cost.

The Batooro and Banyankole used to make different pots for different purposed in different shapes. The shape and the size of the pot depend on the use of that pot and they can be for serving food, storing the drinking water, fetching water, preparing food especially millet bread ( Kalo) and porridge. These pots can now be used to serve food to the tourists in the traditional and modern hotels or they can be sold to them as souvenirs for decorative purposes.

Weapons and arms
The weapons including the spears, arrows and the drums for alerting men were used for communications and defense. These can now be sold to the tourists and showing them how they are used. For example different spears have different shapes and sizes depending on the purpose they serve.

Musical instruments
The musical instruments include the drums like the ones used on the coronation days, the King’s royal drum and the ones used for music and dance, the flutes and horns. These can be played to the tourists at a cost or sold to the tourists in for of souvenirs.

Different baskets are made in different shapes for different purposes. The baskets that are made by the Batooro include the ones for storing food, serving it, winnowing trays. Others are used for local and traditional methods of fishing and for traditional ceremonies like marriage ceremonies. These fishing baskets can be rented to the tourists who may be interested in using the traditional methods of fishing. They can also be used for serving food in the hotels for different dishes like “Kalo”.

Different festivals are performed to celebrate indigenous and ethnic cultural heritage, religious festivals, historically significant occasions, sporting events, seasonal rites and agricultural products. When advertised and properly organized, they can attract many people allover the world to come and attend these festivals at a fee.

Events including artistic performances, sporting competition, conferences, carnivals and conventions can be properly organized and integrated into the itineraries of the tourists. Some adventurers can also participate to get the thrilling experience with the local people. The events may be special events that are one-off happenings designed for particular need or local community event that may be established to involve people in the shared responsibility or experience to bear mutual benefits.

This may involve the local foods and drinks where by the tourists may be involved in buying the food stuffs , learning about the ways of cooking ,local foods and learning about the eating and drinking habits of the local communities . The tourists may also participate in the eating with local communities to share the dining experience with them.

Many tourists are interested in culture and heritage like learning about the history of the kingdom, stories behind the origin of Amabere ga Nyinamwiru and the crater lakes. The Batooro elders can organize the excursions with the tourists like during the camp fires and they start telling them about the stories.

Village walks
Due to the growth of ecotourism and culture tourism, many are interested in experiencing new things as some of the tourists are bored of the town life. This can give an opportunity to organize the village walks that would take 2 to 3 days while the tourists are sleeping in the camps with the local people.

6.6 Tourism facilities needed for cultural tourism development.
For cultural tourism to develop in Kabarole there is a need to develop different services and facilities that include the following;

Outstanding management and administration is needed for facilitating, managing and running the activities in Kabarole.

A rural tourism cultural centre is also needed that can be situated in Fort portal town such that the tourists who may not be having time to move deep into the villages can get the information from the centre. The center will also be for providing the information about the Dos and Don’ts when one is in the area and provide for ethnocentrism.

There is need for accessibility in terms of transport like an airfield, roads and tracks leading to the major cultural attractions.

Guiding services are also needed where the tour guides who are trained on how to handle the issues of cultural differences to equilibrium. These would be helpful in taking tourists in different cultural attractions.

Different supporting facilities are needed to develop cultural tourism. These may include restaurants (including fast foods, takeaways, bars and beverage services), craft shops and souvenirs, camping sites and entertainment centers among others. Accommodation will be provided in different cultural sites.

Augmented products that can be provided to the tourists include telephones, internet services and the postal services.

7.1 Introduction
Tourism marketing is the management process of anticipating, analyzing and satisfying the existing and potential visitor wants and needs more effectively than the competitive suppliers or destinations. The planning of the destination will involve analyzing the market opportunities, researching and selecting target market, developing marketing strategies, planning marketing tactics and implementing and controlling the market effort.

7.2 Marketing objectives.
• To increase the awareness about the new product (cultural tourism).
• To achieve successful entry into international markets.
• To increase total sales of the tourism product.
• To improve the country’s image and re-branding of Uganda as a tourist destination.
• To increase Uganda’s markets share in the international market.

7.3 Target markets / market segments
The market is targeting the international market especially the countries of Britain, Germany, United States of America, china, South Africa and the rest of Europe because they are the major tourism generating countries.

The regional market will also target the east African countries like Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi and Rwanda. This would help because of being in the same conditions and cultures. In other words, their demands are not burdening.

The domestic market is also targeted and will involve the school groups and other groups interested in cultural tourism. This is targeted because it helps the country during the period of off-peak season when the country has low international tourist arrivals. The market also has little demands because the conditions are almost the same as theirs and even the food they use does not differ much.

7.4 Market analysis for cultural tourism.

Tourism in Uganda still has few products to offer apart from wildlife. Therefore cultural tourism can easily be integrated in the tourism product.

There has been increased demand for cultural tourism especially by the retirees who are interested in the culture of other people because theirs have been eroded away.

There is inadequate information provided to the public about the new product like cultural tourism.

There is poor infrastructure in terms of roads that link the cultural sites. Most of the means of transport used include bodabodas that may be inconvenient to the international travelers.

Advertising and publicity is still inadequate and even the little that is done focuses mainly on wildlife and neglects culture.

There is the domination of small scale enterprises like the craft shops in fort portal town and the community projects like the ones in Bigodi are on a small scale that becomes unreliable.

There is need for infrastructure development in terms of roads, accommodation facilities and communication systems.

Cultural education and training are needed for improvement in the skills in the customer care, quality assurance marketing and retailing services and community tourism.

There is need to develop domestic holidays since it can contribute much to the Small scale and Medium scale Enterprises (SME).

Political instability in Uganda in the 1970’ during the Amin’s regime which created poor image of the country abroad especially in Northern Uganda which limits the number of tourists in the area.

Economic factors including inadequate capital investment, few incentives to local people and high levels of poverty in rural areas.

Seasonality of the tourism industry that paralyses the whole tourism industry I general causing problems in tourism planning and marketing.

The value for money in Uganda is very high compared to the services provided to the tourists by the service providers.

7.5 Marketing channels

For cultural tourism to be developed, the following marketing channels shall be used to reach both the domestic and international tourists.

The online media will be used to target mainly the international tourists through the use of the worldwide web and the internet because it is convenient in the modern world.

There will be the use of brochures that shall be provided to both the local and travelers indicating the location of the cultural attractions and how they can be accessed.

There will be the use of television shows like the ongoing adverts on the CNN and some other local television channels and the local news papers.

The tour operators and the travel agencies shall also be provided with enough information about cultural sites and attractions in Kabarole and encourage to include them in the itineraries.

The world of mouth shall be used which will be ensured by high customer satisfaction such that by the time they get home they can be able to recommend them to their friends who may have similar interests.

8.1 Conclusions

Uganda has developed tourism industry and has acted as the key factor to the economic development of the country like through the creation of employment to the masses, foreign exchange earner, and conservation of the natural and cultural resources and development of other sectors through the multiplier effect.
Therefore tourism needs to be planned and supported and developed if Uganda is to compete favorably in the market place. Uganda has an opportunity of the unique resources especially the gorillas, forests, lakes, falls and rivers.

There are many tourist activities that have been developed from these resources like gorilla and chimpanzee tracking, bird and butterfly watching, cultural tourism, village walks, nature and forest walks, game viewing, hill hiking, launch cruises and white water rafting. There are still more tourist potentials like canopy walks and viewing, farm tourism, cultural tourism, kayaking and organizations for events tourism. There is also need to exploit more of the resources for tourism development.

There has been partnership and coordination between different stakeholders in the destinations like the government, private sector, donors and Non governmental Organizations, tourists and the local communities especially in the collection of medicinal plants honey harvesting, collection of firewood and minimal hunting of specific animals.

Despite the rate and the level of tourism development in Uganda, most of these areas are facing the challenge of inadequate funding, poaching, inadequate skilled manpower, poor infrastructure, complaints of the local people about the invasion of animals into the communities among others.

8.2 Recommendations

According to the field study carried out, the major challenges facing the tourism industry are low conservation awareness, rejection of the policies by the local communities and the encroachment on the protected areas. There is therefore a need for the involvement of all stakeholders in decision making including the tourists, government, private sector and the local communities, encouragement of the collaborative protected area management through the involvement of the local communities in decision making, creating awareness about the need for the conservation of the environment to the major stakeholders through carrying out seminars, excursions, public talks and the performances advocating for the nature conservation.

There is need for improvement in infrastructure like the roads linking the tourist destination especially in rural areas where the roads are very poor and impassable, employment of the trained and skilled personnel like the tour guides and the people working in the hotels to provide efficient services to the tourists.
There is also a need for more facilities to be established in the destinations like the hotels restaurants and lodges to facilitate the tourist activities.
The government should take a key role in the tourism development in the country through funding growth and solicit for more funds in case of need for tourism development and it should focus and target at marketing East Africa as a single destination.

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